A panel of three federal judges heard arguments in the case Perry v. Schwarzenegger, the Proposition 8 (or the California Marriage Protection Act) case. The 9th Circuit heard an appeal of an August ruling by U.S. District Judge Vaughn R. Walker, who presided over a trial that found the ban on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional. The first hour of the hearing lawyers addressed issues of legal authority, or standing. The second hour addressed the merits of the appeal. There is a brief break in the live programming in which the opening testimony was replayed.