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Bell Ringer: President Johnson and the 14th Amendment


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Professor Michael Ross explains the 14th Amendment’s and its role during Reconstruction, including President Johnson’s reaction to its proposal. (9 mins)


  • History Professor Michael Ross, University of Maryland, College Park


  • Civil Rights Act of 1866
  • Constitution
  • Reconstruction
  • Dred Scott Case
  • Ratify
  • American Equal Rights Association
  • Suffrage Movement
  • New Orleans Riot

Bell Ringer Assignment

  • Why did Congress decide that passing the 14th amendment would be most effective for Reconstruction policy?
  • Describe the key aspects of Section 1 of the 14th Amendment. Why has this been a controversial clause?
  • Describe Section 2 of the 14th amendment and explain its effect on southern states during Reconstruction.
  • Explain Susan B. Anthony’s reaction to Section 2 of the 14th amendment. What did she do in response to this section?
  • Briefly explain the remaining sections of the 14th Amendment and their effects on Reconstruction.
  • What was President Johnson’s reaction to the proposal of the 14th Amendment? Explain the multiple results of President Johnson’s actions.